In Europe, more and more people begin to seriously consider the energy consumption of houses when they rent, buy and build houses. Through the use of thermal insulation materials, heat recovery system and new energy heating facilities, a set of energy-saving low-energy housing can not only clean and environmental protection, but also save a large amount of energy expenditure. Why don't Europeans? Germany - users decide whether to use heating or not
The geographical latitude of Germany is similar to that of Harbin in Northeast China. Influenced by the marine climate, the winter temperature in Germany is higher than that in Harbin. However, due to the longer winter time in Germany, heating is indispensable for local families. Unlike China, Germany's heating system is open all year round and users can decide whether to use it or not. Even in summer, if the residents feel cold, they can turn on the heating at home.
According to the statistics of bafu state government in southwest Germany, the energy consumption of house heating accounts for nearly 1 / 3 of the national energy consumption every year, and the energy consumption of ordinary households for heating accounts for 80% of the total energy consumption. Therefore, it is very important to improve the thermal performance of the house for energy conservation.
In recent years, Germany has paid great attention to energy efficiency at the beginning of architectural design. Feng kadov, one of the designers of the Daimler building area of Potsdam square in Berlin, told our reporter that good ventilation and lighting should be considered in the design, which helps to reduce the energy consumption of the building. At the same time, windows can automatically adjust the vents according to the indoor and outdoor temperature difference, and accurately calculate the air flow direction, so as to achieve good convection: in summer, the indoor temperature can be kept comfortable without air conditioning, and in winter, it can provide good heat insulation.
Germany divides low-energy housing into four categories: energy-saving housing, low-energy housing, passive solar energy housing and zero heating housing. Passive energy consumption houses adopt special insulation layer, which can prevent heat loss. In this way, people's temperature, sunlight and heat generated by electrical operation can basically maintain the temperature of the house. The ventilation system of the house is equipped with an efficient heat recovery system. The lack of a small amount of heat can be supplemented by heating air at the air inlet.
At present, 7000 of the 36 million residential units in Quande have reached the passive energy consumption standard. On this basis, it can also increase the use of renewable energy and realize zero heating housing.
Belgium - energy conservation will be the primary consideration
Our reporter has lived in Brussels for many years, during which he moved once. Before the move, the reporter lived in a 9-story apartment building built in the 1960s. The main reason for the move was that the heating was too expensive.
According to a survey conducted by roularta, Belgium's largest media group, Belgians pay most attention to their geographical location when building or buying houses, followed by energy conservation. In addition, almost all respondents believe that energy conservation will be the primary consideration within 10 years. Villa with garden and swimming pool has become an old dream. People no longer pursue the luxury of houses.
Because of the rising price of energy, it is wise to choose an energy-saving house. This kind of actual demand has promoted the progress of energy-saving building technology, making Belgium the world leader in building energy efficiency. In terms of building materials and construction, the thickening of external wall insulation layer, broken bridge structural window frame, and inert gas filled hollow glass in the middle are all very advanced. They are also very ingenious in the use of solar energy, rainwater collection, water circulation, cold and hot air exchange, which can reduce energy consumption by about 50%. In terms of ventilation, considering that natural ventilation will lose a lot of heat energy in winter, mechanical ventilation is basically used. In addition, most of the houses can automatically adjust the energy consumption, such as the temperature control device can accurately and automatically adjust the indoor temperature. If the room temperature is higher than the set temperature, the heating equipment will automatically stop working, so as to avoid the waste of "opening windows after heating".
France - use of efficient heating and insulation equipment
According to a Swiss report, the energy consumption of houses built before 1970 is four times that of houses built according to current insulation standards. In France, heating energy consumption accounts for about 60% of the total energy consumption of houses. Heating is the most energy consuming part of French life.
The French government requires new houses to meet the latest low-energy standards, while for the old houses full of streets, the government proposes to renovate the houses with high energy consumption and lay more efficient heating equipment and thermal insulation equipment. With people's continuous attention to energy conservation and consumption reduction, there are also new energy companies promoting solar energy or biological energy heating equipment to reduce energy costs, and more clean and environmental protection.
According to statistics, if a building is not insulated, it will cause a lot of heat loss (see Figure). At present, France has a set of building energy consumption eva1uation standards, which must be issued when renting and selling houses. To eva1uate whether a building meets the low energy consumption standard, one of the most important is whether the building has good thermal insulation effect, including the use of hot insulation, high-efficiency thermal resistance material walls and double-layer insulating glass.
On the one hand, it uses efficient heating equipment, on the other hand, it uses thermal insulation equipment to prevent heat loss, so that the French can live a warm and energy-saving winter.